The Command

The command (‘amr) can be used in one of sixteen ways:

  1. Wujūb: to mandate something upon the audience, e.g., Qur’ān 1:43.
  2. Ibāhah: to allow something for the audience, e.g., Qur’ān 5:2.
  3. Nudb: to recommend something for the audience, e.g., Qur’ān 24:33.
  4. Tahdīd: to scold the audience, e.g., Qur’ān 41:40.
  5. Taʿjīz: to show the incapability of the audience, e.g., Qur’ān 10:38.
  6. Irshād: to guide the audience toward what is more practical (as opposed to nudb, which relates to reward in the Hereafter), e.g., Qur’ān 65:2.
  7. Taskhīr: e.g., Qur’ān 2:65.
  8. Imtinān: to show one’s favors upon the audience, e.g., Qur’ān 5:88.
  9. Ikrām: to honor the audience, e.g., Qur’ān 15:46.
  10. Ihānah: to disgrace the audience, e.g., Qur’ān 44:49.
  11. Taswiyah: to equate two things, e.g., Qur’ān 52:16.
  12. Duʿā’: to beseech the audience, e.g., Qur’ān 71:28.
  13. Tamannī: Qur’ān 43:77.
  14. Ihtiqār: to demean the audience, e.g., Qur’ān 7:116.
  15. Takwīn: to bring something into existence, e.g., Qur’ān 36:82.
  16. Ta’dīb: to reform the behavior of the audience, e.g., the statement of the Beloved ﷺ, “Eat from what is in front of you.”
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